Methods & Measures

The following resources provide methodological guidance for conducting research that examines racism's contributions to health inequities.

Berkman LF, Kawachi I. Social Epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. 

Davis LE and Engel RJ. Measuring Race and Ethnicity. New York, NY: Springer 2011.

Ford CL, Airhihenbuwa CO. The public health critical race methodology: praxis for antiracism research. Soc Sci Med. 2010;71(8):1390-1398.


Heeringa S, Wagner J, Torres M, Duan NH, Adams T, Berglund P. Sample Designs and Sampling Methods for the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (Cpes). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research. 2004;13:221-240.

Jackson JS, Neighbors HW, Nesse RM, Trierweiler SJ, Torres M. Methodological innovations in the National Survey of American Life. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2004;13(4):289-298.

Kagawa-Singer M. Improving the validity and generalizability of studies with underserved U.S. populations expanding the research paradigm. Ann Epidemiol. 2000;10(8 Suppl):S92-103.

Kaufman JS, Cooper RS, Mcgee DL. Socioeconomic status and health in blacks and whites: The problem of residual confounding and the resiliency of race. Epidemiology. 1997;8:621-628.

Krieger N. Embodying inequality: a review of concepts, measures and methods for studying health consequences of discrimination. Int J Health Serv. 1999;29(2):295-352.

National Research Council. Measuring Racial Discrimination. Washington DC: National Academies
Press, 2004.

Oakes JM and Kaufman JS. Methods in Social Epidemiology. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

Schoenbach VJ and Rosamond WD. Understanding the Fundamentals of Epidemiology: An Evolving Text. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2000.

Zuberi T. Thicker than Blood: How Racial Statistics Lie. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press; 2003.