Theories & Concepts 


Many theoretical frameworks on racial phenomena exist, this partial list highlights anti-racism theories that may be useful for health equity research.


Racial health equity theories and theoretical frameworks

Bonilla-Silva E. Rethinking racism: Toward a structural interpretation. American Sociological Review. 1996;62:465-480.

Clark R, Anderson NB, Clark VR, Williams DR. Racism as a stressor for African Americans: A biopsychosocial model. American Psychologist. 1999;October 1999:805-816.

Gee GC, Payne-Sturges DC. Environmental health disparities: a framework integrating psychosocial and environmental concepts.Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112(17):1645-1653.

Graham L, Brown-Jeffy S, Aronson R, Stephens C. Critical race theory as theoretical framework and analysis tool for population health research. Critical Public Health. 2011;21(1):81-93.

Krieger N. Got theory? – on the 21st c CE rise of explicit use of epidemiologic theories of disease distribution: a review and ecosocial analysis. Current Epidemiol Reports 2014; 1(1):45-56

Viruell-Fuentes EA, Miranda PY, Abdulrahim S. More than culture: Structural racism, intersectionality theory, and immigrant health. Soc Sci Med. 2012.

Williams DR, Collins C. Racial residential segregation: a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. Public Health Rep. 2001;116(5):404-416.



This is not intended to be an exhaustive list. We invite you to share theory resources via the link below.